Lumen Gentium



18. For the nurturing and constant growth of the People of God, Christ the Lord instituted in His Church a variety of ministries, which work for the good of the whole body. For those ministers, who are endowed with sacred power, serve their brethren, so that all who are of the People of God, and therefore enjoy a true Christian dignity, working toward a common goal freely and in an orderly way, may arrive at salvation.

This Sacred Council, following closely in the footsteps of the First Vatican Council, with that Council teaches and declares that Jesus Christ, the eternal Shepherd, established His holy Church, having sent forth the apostles as He Himself had been sent by the Father;(136) and He willed that their successors, namely the bishops, should be shepherds in His Church even to the consummation of the world. And in order that the episcopate itself might be one and undivided, He placed Blessed Peter over the other apostles, and instituted in him a permanent and visible source and foundation of unity of faith and communion.(1*) And all this teaching about the institution, the perpetuity, the meaning and reason for the sacred primacy of the Roman Pontiff and of his infallible magisterium, this Sacred Council again proposes to be firmly believed by all the faithful. Continuing in that same undertaking, this Council is resolved to declare and proclaim before all men the doctrine concerning bishops, the successors of the apostles, who together with the successor of Peter, the Vicar of Christ,(2*) the visible Head of the whole Church, govern the house of the living God.

19. The Lord Jesus, after praying to the Father, calling to Himself those whom He desired, appointed twelve to be with Him, and whom He would send to preach the Kingdom of God;(137) and these apostles(138) He formed after the manner of a college or a stable group, over which He placed Peter chosen from among them.(139) He sent them first to the children of Israel and then to all nations,(140) so that as sharers in His power they might make all peoples His disciples, and sanctify and govern them,(141) and thus spread His Church, and by ministering to it under the guidance of the Lord, direct it all days even to the consummation of the world.(142) And in this mission they were fully confirmed on the day of Pentecost(143) in accordance with the Lord's promise: "You shall receive power when the Holy Spirit comes upon you, and you shall be witnesses for me in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and in Samaria, and even to the very ends of the earth".(144) And the apostles, by preaching the Gospel everywhere,(145) and it being accepted by their hearers under the influence of the Holy Spirit, gather together the universal Church, which the Lord established on the apostles and built upon blessed Peter, their chief, Christ Jesus Himself being the supreme cornerstone.(146)(3*)

20. That divine mission, entrusted by Christ to the apostles, will last until the end of the world,(147) since the Gospel they are to teach is for all time the source of all life for the Church. And for this reason the apostles, appointed as rulers in this society, took care to appoint successors.

For they not only had helpers in their ministry,(4*) but also, in order that the mission assigned to them might continue after their death, they passed on to their immediate cooperators, as it were, in the form of a testament, the duty of confirming and finishing the work begun by themselves,(5*) recommending to them that they attend to the whole flock in which the Holy Spirit placed them to shepherd the Church of God.(148) They therefore appointed such men, and gave them the order that, when they should have died, other approved men would take up their ministry.(6*) Among those various ministries which, according to tradition, were exercised in the Church from the earliest times, the chief place belongs to the office of those who, appointed to the episcopate, by a succession running from the beginning,(7*) are passers-on of the apostolic seed.(8*) Thus, as St. Irenaeus testifies, through those who were appointed bishops by the apostles, and through their successors down ln our own time, the apostolic tradition is manifested (9*) and preserved.(10*)

Bishops, therefore, with their helpers, the priests and deacons, have taken up the service of the community, (11*) presiding in place of God over the flock,(12*) whose shepherds they are, as teachers for doctrine, priests for sacred worship, and ministers for governing.(13*) And just as the office granted individually to Peter, the first among the apostles, is permanent and is to be transmitted to his successors, so also the apostles' office of nurturing the Church is permanent, and is to be exercised without interruption by the sacred order of bishops. (14*) Therefore, the Sacred Council teaches that bishops by divine institution have succeeded to the place of the apostles, (15*) as shepherds of the Church, and he who hears them, hears Christ, and he who rejects them, rejects Christ and Him who sent Christ.(149)(16*)

21. In the bishops, therefore, for whom priests are assistants, Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Supreme High Priest, is present in the midst of those who believe. For sitting at the right hand of God the Father, He is not absent from the gathering of His high priests,(17*) but above all through their excellent service He is preaching the word of God to all nations, and constantly administering the sacraments of faith to those who believe, by their paternal functioning(150) He incorporates new members in His Body by a heavenly regeneration, and finally by their wisdom and prudence He directs and guides the People of the New Testament in their pilgrimage toward eternal happiness. These pastors, chosen to shepherd the Lord's flock of the elect, are servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God,(151) to whom has been assigned the bearing of witness to the Gospel of the grace of God,(152) and the ministration of the Spirit and of justice in glory.(153)

For the discharging of such great duties, the apostles were enriched by Christ with a special outpouring of the Holy Spirit coming upon them,(154) and they passed on this spiritual gift to their helpers by the imposition of hands,(155) and it has been transmitted down to us in episcopal consecration.(18*) And the Sacred Council teaches that by episcopal consecration the fullness of the sacrament of Orders is conferred, that fullness of power, namely, which both in the Church's liturgical practice and in the language of the Fathers of the Church is called the high priesthood, the supreme power of the sacred ministry.(19*) But episcopal consecration, together with the office of sanctifying, also confers the office of teaching and of governing, which, however, of its very nature, can be exercised only in hierarchical communion with the head and the members of the college. For from the tradition, which is expressed especially in liturgical rites and in the practice of both the Church of the East and of the West, it is clear that, by means of the imposition of hands and the words of consecration, the grace of the Holy Spirit is so conferred,(20*) and the sacred character so impressed,(21*) that bishops in an eminent and visible way sustain the roles of Christ Himself as Teacher, Shepherd and High Priest, and that they act in His person.(22*) Therefore it pertains to the bishops to admit newly elected members into the episcopal body by means of the sacrament of Orders.

22. Just as in the Gospel, the Lord so disposing, St. Peter and the other apostles constitute one apostolic college, so in a similar way the Roman Pontiff, the successor of Peter, and the bishops, the successors of the apostles, are joined together. Indeed, the very ancient practice whereby bishops duly established in all parts of the world were in communion with one another and with the Bishop of Rome in a bond of unity, charity and peace,(23*) and also the councils assembled together,(24*) in which more profound issues were settled in common, (25*) the opinion of the many having been prudently considered,(26*) both of these factors are already an indication of the collegiate character and aspect of the episcopal order; and the ecumenical councils held in the course of centuries are also manifest proof of that same character. And it is intimated also in the practice, introduced in ancient times, of summoning several bishops to take part in the elevation of the newly elected to the ministry of the high priesthood. Hence, one is constituted a member of the episcopal body in virtue of sacramental consecration and hierarchical communion with the head and members of the body.

But the college or body of bishops has no authority unless it is understood together with the Roman Pontiff, the successor of Peter as its head. The pope's power of primacy over all, both pastors and faithful, remains whole and intact. In virtue of his office, that is as Vicar of Christ and pastor of the whole Church, the Roman Pontiff has full, supreme and universal power over the Church. And he is always free to exercise this power. The order of bishops, which succeeds to the college of apostles and gives this apostolic body continued existence, is also the subject of supreme and full power over the universal Church, provided we understand this body together with its head the Roman Pontiff and never without this head.(27*) This power can be exercised only with the consent of the Roman Pontiff. For our Lord placed Simon alone as the rock and the bearer of the keys of the Church,(156) and made him shepherd of the whole flock;(157) it is evident, however, that the power of binding and loosing, which was given to Peter,(158) was granted also to the college of apostles, joined with their head.(159)(28*) This college, insofar as it is composed of many, expresses the variety and universality of the People of God, but insofar as it is assembled under one head, it expresses the unity of the flock of Christ. In it, the bishops, faithfully recognizing the primacy and pre-eminence of their head, exercise their own authority for the good of their own faithful, and indeed of the whole Church, the Holy Spirit supporting its organic structure and harmony with moderation. The supreme power in the universal Church, which this college enjoys, is exercised in a solemn way in an ecumenical council. A council is never ecumenical unless it is confirmed or at least accepted as such by the successor of Peter; and it is prerogative of the Roman Pontiff to convoke these councils, to preside over them and to confirm them.(29*) This same collegiate power can be exercised together with the pope by the bishops living in all parts of the world, provided that the head of the college calls them to collegiate action, or at least approves of or freely accepts the united action of the scattered bishops, so that it is thereby made a collegiate act.

23. This collegial union is apparent also m the mutual relations of the individual bishops with particular churches and with the universal Church. The Roman Pontiff, as the successor of Peter, is the perpetual and visible principle and foundation of unity of both the bishops and of the faithful.(30*) The individual bishops, however, are the visible principle and foundation of unity in their particular churches, (31*) fashioned after the model of the universal Church, in and from which churches comes into being the one and only Catholic Church.(32*) For this reason the individual bishops represent each his own church, but all of them together and with the Pope represent the entire Church in the bond of peace, love and unity.

The individual bishops, who are placed in charge of particular churches, exercise their pastoral government over the portion of the People of God committed to their care, and not over other churches nor over the universal Church. But each of them, as a member of the episcopal college and legitimate successor of the apostles, is obliged by Christ's institution and command to be solicitous for the whole Church,(33*) and this solicitude, though it is not exercised by an act of jurisdiction, contributes greatly to the advantage of the universal Church. For it is the duty of all bishops to promote and to safeguard the unity of faith and the discipline common to the whole Church, to instruct the faithful to love for the whole mystical body of Christ, especially for its poor and sorrowing members and for those who are suffering persecution for justice's sake,(160) and finally to promote every activity that is of interest to the whole Church, especially that the faith may take increase and the light of full truth appear to all men. And this also is important, that by governing well their own church as a portion of the universal Church, they themselves are effectively contributing to the welfare of the whole Mystical Body, which is also the body of the churches.(34*)

The task of proclaiming the Gospel everywhere on earth pertains to the body of pastors, to all of whom in common Christ gave His command, thereby imposing upon them a common duty, as Pope Celestine in his time recommended to the Fathers of the Council of Ephesus.(35*) From this it follows that the individual bishops, insofar as their own discharge of their duty permits, are obliged to enter into a community of work among themselves and with the successor of Peter, upon whom was imposed in a special way the great duty of spreading the Christian name.(36*) With all their energy, therefore, they must supply to the missions both workers for the harvest and also spiritual and material aid, both directly and on their own account. as well as by arousing the ardent cooperation of the faithful. And finally, the bishops, in a universal fellowship of charity, should gladly extend their fraternal aid to other churches, especially to neighboring and more needy dioceses in accordance with the venerable example of antiquity.

By divine Providence it has come about that various churches, established in various places by the apostles and their successors, have in the course of time coalesced into several groups, organically united, which, preserving the unity of faith and the unique divine constitution of the universal Church, enjoy their own discipline, their own liturgical usage, and their own theological and spiritual heritage. Some of these churches, notably the ancient patriarchal churches, as parent-stocks of the Faith, so to speak, have begotten others as daughter churches, with which they are connected down to our own time by a close bond of charity in their sacramental life and in their mutual respect for their rights and duties.(37*) This variety of local churches with one common aspiration is splendid evidence of the catholicity of the undivided Church. In like manner the episcopal bodies of today are in a position to render a manifold and fruitful assistance, so that this collegiate feeling may be put into practical application.

24. Bishops, as successors of the apostles, receive from the Lord, to whom was given all power in heaven and on earth, the mission to teach all nations and to preach the Gospel to every creature, so that all men may attain to salvation by faith, baptism and the fulfilment of the commandments.(161) To fulfill this mission, Christ the Lord promised the Holy Spirit to the Apostles, and on Pentecost day sent the Spirit from heaven, by whose power they would be witnesses to Him before the nations and peoples and kings even to the ends of the earth.(162) And that duty, which the Lord committed to the shepherds of His people, is a true service, which in sacred literature is significantly called "diakonia" or ministry.(163)

The canonical mission of bishops can come about by legitimate customs that have not been revoked by the supreme and universal authority of the Church, or by laws made or recognized be that the authority, or directly through the successor of Peter himself; and if the latter refuses or denies apostolic communion, such bishops cannot assume any office.(38*)

25. Among the principal duties of bishops the preaching of the Gospel occupies an eminent place.(39*) For bishops are preachers of the faith, who lead new disciples to Christ, and they are authentic teachers, that is, teachers endowed with the authority of Christ, who preach to the people committed to them the faith they must believe and put into practice, and by the light of the Holy Spirit illustrate that faith. They bring forth from the treasury of Revelation new things and old,(164) making it bear fruit and vigilantly warding off any errors that threaten their flock.(165) Bishops, teaching in communion with the Roman Pontiff, are to be respected by all as witnesses to divine and Catholic truth. In matters of faith and morals, the bishops speak in the name of Christ and the faithful are to accept their teaching and adhere to it with a religious assent. This religious submission of mind and will must be shown in a special way to the authentic magisterium of the Roman Pontiff, even when he is not speaking ex cathedra; that is, it must be shown in such a way that his supreme magisterium is acknowledged with reverence, the judgments made by him are sincerely adhered to, according to his manifest mind and will. His mind and will in the matter may be known either from the character of the documents, from his frequent repetition of the same doctrine, or from his manner of speaking.

Although the individual bishops do not enjoy the prerogative of infallibility, they nevertheless proclaim Christ's doctrine infallibly whenever, even though dispersed through the world, but still maintaining the bond of communion among themselves and with the successor of Peter, and authentically teaching matters of faith and morals, they are in agreement on one position as definitively to be held.(40*) This is even more clearly verified when, gathered together in an ecumenical council, they are teachers and judges of faith and morals for the universal Church, whose definitions must be adhered to with the submission of faith.(41*)

And this infallibility with which the Divine Redeemer willed His Church to be endowed in defining doctrine of faith and morals, extends as far as the deposit of Revelation extends, which must be religiously guarded and faithfully expounded. And this is the infallibility which the Roman Pontiff, the head of the college of bishops, enjoys in virtue of his office, when, as the supreme shepherd and teacher of all the faithful, who confirms his brethren in their faith,(166) by a definitive act he proclaims a doctrine of faith or morals.(42*) And therefore his definitions, of themselves, and not from the consent of the Church, are justly styled irreformable, since they are pronounced with the assistance of the Holy Spirit, promised to him in blessed Peter, and therefore they need no approval of others, nor do they allow an appeal to any other judgment. For then the Roman Pontiff is not pronouncing judgment as a private person, but as the supreme teacher of the universal Church, in whom the charism of infallibility of the Church itself is individually present, he is expounding or defending a doctrine of Catholic faith.(43*) The infallibility promised to the Church resides also in the body of Bishops, when that body exercises the supreme magisterium with the successor of Peter. To these definitions the assent of the Church can never be wanting, on account of the activity of that same Holy Spirit, by which the whole flock of Christ is preserved and progresses in unity of faith.(44*)

But when either the Roman Pontiff or the Body of Bishops together with him defines a judgment, they pronounce it in accordance with Revelation itself, which all are obliged to abide by and be in conformity with, that is, the Revelation which as written or orally handed down is transmitted in its entirety through the legitimate succession of bishops and especially in care of the Roman Pontiff himself, and which under the guiding light of the Spirit of truth is religiously preserved and faithfully expounded in the Church.(45*) The Roman Pontiff and the bishops, in view of their office and the importance of the matter, by fitting means diligently strive to inquire properly into that revelation and to give apt expression to its contents;(46*) but a new public revelation they do not accept as pertaining to the divine deposit of faith.(47*)

26. A bishop marked with the fullness of the sacrament of Orders, is "the steward of the grace of the supreme priesthood," (48*) especially in the Eucharist, which he offers or causes to be offered,(49*) and by which the Church continually lives and grows. This Church of Christ is truly present in all legitimate local congregations of the faithful which, united with their pastors, are themselves called churches in the New Testament.(50*) For in their locality these are the new People called by God, in the Holy Spirit and in much fullness.(167) In them the faithful are gathered together by the preaching of the Gospel of Christ, and the mystery of the Lord's Supper is celebrated, that by the food and blood of the Lord's body the whole brotherhood may be joined together.(51*) In any community of the altar, under the sacred ministry of the bishop,(52*) there is exhibited a symbol of that charity and "unity of the mystical Body, without which there can be no salvation."(53*) In these communities, though frequently small and poor, or living in the Diaspora, Christ is present, and in virtue of His presence there is brought together one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church.(54*) For "the partaking of the body and blood of Christ does nothing other than make us be transformed into that which we consume". (55*)

Every legitimate celebration of the Eucharist is regulated by the bishop, to whom is committed the office of offering the worship of Christian religion to the Divine Majesty and of administering it in accordance with the Lord's commandments and the Church's laws, as further defined by his particular judgment for his diocese.

Bishops thus, by praying and laboring for the people, make outpourings in many ways and in great abundance from the fullness of Christ's holiness. By the ministry of the word they communicate God's power to those who believe unto salvation(168) and through the sacraments, the regular and fruitful distribution of which they regulate by their authority,(56*) they sanctify the faithful. They direct the conferring of baptism, by which a sharing in the kingly priesthood of Christ is granted. They are the original ministers of confirmation, dispensers of sacred Orders and the moderators of penitential discipline, and they earnestly exhort and instruct their people to carry out with faith and reverence their part in the liturgy and especially in the holy sacrifice of the Mass. And lastly, by the example of their way of life they must be an influence for good to those over whom they preside, refraining from all evil and, as far as they are able with God's help, exchanging evil for good, so that together with the flock committed to their care they may arrive at eternal life.(57*)

27. Bishops, as vicars and ambassadors of Christ, govern the particular churches entrusted to them (58*) by their counsel, exhortations, example, and even by their authority and sacred power, which indeed they use only for the edification of their flock in truth and holiness, remembering that he who is greater should become as the lesser and he who is the chief become as the servant.(169) This power, which they personally exercise in Christ's name, is proper, ordinary and immediate, although its exercise is ultimately regulated by the supreme authority of the Church, and can be circumscribed by certain limits, for the advantage of the Church or of the faithful. In virtue of this power, bishops have the sacred right and the duty before the Lord to make laws for their subjects, to pass judgment on them and to moderate everything pertaining to the ordering of worship and the apostolate.

The pastoral office or the habitual and daily care of their sheep is entrusted to them completely; nor are they to be regarded as vicars of the Roman Pontiffs, for they exercise an authority that is proper to them, and are quite correctly called "prelates," heads of the people whom they govern.(59*) Their power, therefore, is not destroyed by the supreme and universal power, but on the contrary it is affirmed, strengthened and vindicated by it,(60*) since the Holy Spirit unfailingly preserves the form of government established by Christ the Lord in His Church.

A bishop, since he is sent by the Father to govern his family, must keep before his eyes the example of the Good Shepherd, who came not to be ministered unto but to minister,(170) and to lay down his life for his sheep.(171) Being taken from among men, and himself beset with weakness, he is able to have compassion on the ignorant and erring.(172) Let him not refuse to listen to his subjects, whom he cherishes as his true sons and exhorts to cooperate readily with him. As having one day to render an account for their souls,(173) he takes care of them by his prayer. preaching, and all the works of charity, and not only of them but also of those who are not yet of the one flock. who also are commended to him in the Lord. Since, like Paul the Apostle, he is debtor to all men, let him be ready to preach the Gospel to all,(174) and to urge his faithful to apostolic and missionary activity. But the faithful must cling to their bishop, as the Church does to Christ, and Jesus Christ to the Father, so that all may be of one mind through unity,(61*) and abound to the glory of God.(175)

28. Christ, whom the Father has sanctified and sent into the world, (176) has through His apostles, made their successors, the bishops, partakers of His consecration and His mission.(62*) They have legitimately handed on to different individuals in the Church various degrees of participation in this ministry. Thus the divinely established ecclesiastical ministry is exercised on different levels by those who from antiquity have been called bishops, priests and deacons.(63*) Priests, although they do not possess the highest degree of the priesthood, and although they are dependent on the bishops in the exercise of their power, nevertheless they are united with the bishops in sacerdotal dignity.(64*) By the power of the sacrament of Orders,(65*) in the image of Christ the eternal high Priest,(177) they are consecrated to preach the Gospel and shepherd be faithful and to celebrate divine worship, so that they are true priests of the New Testament.(66*) Partakers of the function of Christ the sole Mediator,(178) on their level of ministry, they announce the divine word to all. They exercise their sacred function especially in the eucharistic worship or the celebration of the Mass by which acting in the person of Christ (67*) and proclaiming His Mystery they unite the prayers of the faithful with the sacrifice of their Head and renew and apply (68*) in the sacrifice of the Mass until the coming of the Lord(179) the only sacrifice of the New Testament namely that of Christ offering Himself once for all a spotless Victim to the Father.(180) For the sick and the sinners among the faithful, they exercise the ministry of alleviation and reconciliation and they present the needs and the prayers of the faithful to God the Father.(181) Exercising within the limits of their authority the function of Christ as Shepherd and Head,(69*) they gather together God's family as a brotherhood all of one mind,(70*) and lead them in the Spirit, through Christ, to God the Father. In the midst of the flock they adore Him in spirit and in truth.(182) Finally, they labor in word and doctrine,(183) believing what they have read and meditated upon in the law of God, teaching what they have believed, and putting in practice in their own lives what they have taught.(71*)

Priests, prudent cooperators with the episcopal order,(72*) its aid and instrument, called to serve the people of God, constitute one priesthood (73*) with their bishop although bound by a diversity of duties. Associated with their bishop in a spirit of trust and generosity, they make him present in a certain sense in the individual local congregations, and take upon themselves, as far as they are able, his duties and the burden of his care, and discharge them with a daily interest. And as they sanctify and govern under the bishop's authority, that part of the Lord's flock entrusted to them they make the universal Church visible in their own locality and bring an efficacious assistance to the building up of the whole body of Christ.(184) intent always upon the welfare of God's children, they must strive to lend their effort to the pastoral work of the whole diocese, and even of the entire Church. On account of this sharing in their priesthood and mission, let priests sincerely look upon the bishop as their father and reverently obey him. And let the bishop regard his priests as his co-workers and as sons and friends, just as Christ called His disciples now not servants but friends.(185) All priests, both diocesan and religious, by reason of Orders and ministry, fit into this body of bishops and priests, and serve the good of the whole Church according to their vocation and the grace given to them.

In virtue of their common sacred ordination and mission, all priests are bound together in intimate brotherhood, which naturally and freely manifests itself in mutual aid, spiritual as well as material, pastoral as well as personal, in their meetings and in communion of life, of labor and charity.

Let them, as fathers in Christ, take care of the faithful whom they have begotten by baptism and their teaching.(186) Becoming from the heart a pattern to the flock,(187) let them so lead and serve their local community that it may worthily be called by that name, by which the one and entire people of God is signed, namely, the Church of God.(188) Let them remember that by their daily life and interests they are showing the face of a truly sacerdotal and pastoral ministry to the faithful and the infidel, to Catholics and non-Catholics, and that to all they bear witness to the truth and life, and as good shepherds go after those also,(189) who though baptized in the Catholic Church have fallen away from the use of the sacraments, or even from the faith.

Because the human race today is joining more and more into a civic, economic and social unity, it is that much the more necessary that priests, by combined effort and aid, under the leadership of the bishops and the Supreme Pontiff, wipe out every kind of separateness, so that the whole human race may be brought into the unity of the family of God.

29. At a lower level of the hierarchy are deacons, upon whom hands are imposed "not unto the priesthood, but unto a ministry of service."(74*) For strengthened by sacramental grace, in communion with the bishop and his group of priests they serve in the diaconate of the liturgy, of the word, and of charity to the people of God. It is the duty of the deacon, according as it shall have been assigned to him by competent authority, to administer baptism solemnly, to be custodian and dispenser of the Eucharist, to assist at and bless marriages in the name of the Church, to bring Viaticum to the dying, to read the Sacred Scripture to the faithful, to instruct and exhort the people, to preside over the worship and prayer of the faithful, to administer sacramentals, to officiate at funeral and burial services. Dedicated to duties of charity and of administration, let deacons be mindful of the admonition of Blessed Polycarp: "Be merciful, diligent, walking according to the truth of the Lord, who became the servant of all."(75*)

Since these duties, so very necessary to the life of the Church, can be fulfilled only with difficulty in many regions in accordance with the discipline of the Latin Church as it exists today, the diaconate can in the future be restored as a proper and permanent rank of the hierarchy. It pertains to the competent territorial bodies of bishops, of one kind or another, with the approval of the Supreme Pontiff, to decide whether and where it is opportune for such deacons to be established for the care of souls. With the consent of the Roman Pontiff, this diaconate can, in the future, be conferred upon men of more mature age, even upon those living in the married state. It may also be conferred upon suitable young men, for whom the law of celibacy must remain intact.


Lumen Gentium



18. Christus Dominus, ad Populum Dei pascendum semperque augendum, in Ecclesia sua varia ministeria instituit, quae ad bonum totius Corporis tendunt. Ministri enim, qui sacra potestate pollent, fratribus [22] suis inserviunt, ut omnes qui de Populo Dei sunt, ideoque vera dignitate christiana gaudent, ad eumdem finem libere et ordinatim conspirantes, ad salutem perveniant.

Haec Sacrosancta Synodus, Concilii Vaticani primi vestigia premens, cum eo docet et declarat Iesum Christum Pastorem aeternum sanctam aedificasse Ecclesiam, missis Apostolis sicut Ipse missus erat a Patre (cf. Io. 20, 21); quorum successores, videlicet Episcopos, in Ecclesia sua usque ad consummationem saeculi pastores esse voluit. Ut vero Episcopatus ipse unus et indivisus esset, beatum Petrum ceteris Apostolis praeposuit in ipsoque instituit perpetuum ac visibile unitatis fidei et communionis principium et fundamentum.[37] Quam doctrinam de institutione, perpetuitate, vi ac ratione sacri Primatus Romani Pontificis deque eius infallibili Magisterio, Sacra Synodus cunctis fidelibus firmiter credendam rursus proponit, et in eodem incepto pergens, doctrinam de Episcopis, successoribus Apostolorum, qui cum successore Petri, Christi Vicario[38] ac totius Ecclesiae visibili Capite, domum Dei viventis regunt, coram omnibus profiteri et declarare constituit.

19. Dominus Iesus, precibus ad Patrem fusis, vocans ad Se quos voluit Ipse, duodecim constituit ut essent cum Illo et ut mitteret eos praedicare Regnum Dei (cf. Mc. 3, 13-19; Mt. 10, 1-42); quos Apostolos (cf. Lc. 6, 13) ad modum collegii seu coetus stabilis instituit, cui ex iisdem electum Petrum praefecit (cf. Io. 21, 15-17). Eos ad filios Israel primum et ad omnes gentes misit (cf. Rom. 1, 16), ut suae participes potestatis, omnes populos discipulos Ipsius facerent, eosque sanctificarent et gubernarent (cf. Mt. 28, 16-20; Mc. 16, 15; Lc. 24, 45-48; Io. 20, 21-23), sicque Ecclesiam propagarent, eamque sub ductu Domini ministrando pascerent, omnibus diebus usque ad consummationem saeculi (cf. Mt. 28, 20). In qua missione die Pentecostes plene confirmati sunt (cf. Act. 2, 1-36) secundum promissum Domini: «Accipietis virtutem supervenientis Spiritus Sancti in vos, et eritis mihi testes in Hierusalem et in omni Iudaea et Samaria, et usque ad ultimum terrae» (Act. 1, 8). Apostoli autem praedicando ubique Evangelium (cf. Mc. 16, 20), ab audientibus Spiritu Sancto operante acceptum, Ecclesiam congregant universalem, quam Dominus in Apostolis condidit [23] et supra beatum Petrum, eorum principem, aedificavit, ipso summo angulari lapide Christo Iesu (cf. Apoc. 21, 14; Mt. 16, 18; Eph. 2, 20).[39]

20. Missio illa divina, a Christo Apostolis concredita, ad finem saeculi erit duratura (cf. Mt. 28, 20), cum Evangelium, ab eis tradendum, sit in omne tempus pro Ecclesia totius vitae principium. Quapropter Apostoli, in hac societate hierarchice ordinata, de instituendis successoribus curam egerunt.

Non solum enim varios adiutores in ministerio habuerunt,[40] sed ut missio ipsis concredita post eorum mortem continuaretur, cooperatoribus suis immediatis, quasi per modum testamenti, demandaverunt munus perficiendi et confirmandi opus ab ipsis inceptum,[41] commendantes illis ut attenderent universo gregi, in quo Spiritus Sanctus eos posuit pascere Ecclesiam Dei (cf. Act. 20, 28). Constituerunt itaque huius modi viros ac deinceps ordinationem dederunt, ut cum decessissent, ministerium eorum alii viri probati exciperent.[42] Inter varia illa ministeria quae inde a primis temporibus in Ecclesia exercentur, teste traditione, praecipuum locum tenet munus illorum qui, in episcopatum constituti, per successionem ab initio decurrentem,[43] apostolici seminis traduces habent.[44] Ita, ut testatur S. Irenaeus, per eos qui ab Apostolis instituti sunt Episcopi et successores eorum usque ad nos, traditio apostolica in toto mundo manifestatur[45] et custoditur.[46]

Episcopi igitur communitatis ministerium cum adiutoribus [24] presbyteris et diaconis susceperunt,[47] loco Dei praesidentes gregi,[48] cuius sunt pastores, ut doctrinae magistri, sacri cultus sacerdotes, gubernationis ministri.[49] Sicut autem permanet munus a Domino singulariter Petro, primo Apostolorum, concessum et successoribus eius transmittendum, ita permanet munus Apostolorum pascendi Ecclesiam, ab ordine sacrato Episcoporum iugiter exercendum.[50] Proinde docet Sacra Synodus Episcopos ex divina institutione in locum Apostolorum successisse,[51] tamquam Ecclesiae pastores, quos qui audit, Christum audit, qui vero spernit, Christum spernit et Eum qui Christum misit (cf. Lc. 10, 16).[52]

21. In Episcopis igitur, quibus presbyteri assistunt, adest in medio credentium Dominus Iesus Christus, Pontifex Summus. Sedens enim ad dexteram Dei Patris, non deest a suorum congregatione pontificum,[53] sed imprimis per eorum eximium servitium verbum Dei omnibus gentibus praedicat et credentibus sacramenta fidei continuo administrat, eorum paterno munere (cf. 1 Cor. 4, 15) nova membra Corpori suo regeneratione superna incorporat, eorum denique sapientia et prudentia Populum Novi Testamenti in sua ad aeternam beatitudinem peregrinatione dirigit et ordinat. Hi pastores ad pascendum dominicum gregem electi, ministri Christi sunt et dispensatores mysteriorum Dei (cf. 1 Cor. 4,1), quibus concredita est testificatio Evangelii gratiae Dei (cf. Rom. 15, 16; Act. 20, 24), atque ministratio Spiritus et iustitiae in gloria (cf. 2 Cor. 3, 8-9).

Ad tanta munera explenda, Apostoli speciali effusione supervenientis Spiritus Sancti a Christo ditati sunt (cf. Act. 1, 8; 2, 4; Io. 20, 22-23), et ipsi adiutoribus suis per impositionem manuum donum spirituale [25] tradiderunt (cf. 1 Tim. 4, 14; 2 Tim. 1, 6-7), quod usque ad nos in episcopali consecratione transmissum est.[54] Docet autem Sancta Synodus episcopali consecratione plenitudinem conferri sacramenti Ordinis, quae nimirum et liturgica Ecclesiae consuetudine et voce Sanctorum Patrum summum sacerdotium, sacri ministerii summa nuncupatur.[55] Episcopalis autem consecratio, cum munere sanctificandi, munera quoque confert docendi et regendi, quae tamen natura sua nonnisi in hierarchica communione cum Collegii Capite et membris exerceri possunt. Ex traditione enim, quae praesertim liturgicis ritibus et Ecclesiae tum Orientis tum Occidentis usu declaratur, perspicuum est manuum impositione et verbis consecrationis gratiam Spiritus Sancti ita conferri[56] et sacrum characterem ita imprimi,[57] ut Episcopi, eminenti ac adspectabili modo, ipsius Christi Magistri, Pastoris et Pontificis partes sustineant et in Eius persona agant.[58] Episcoporum est per Sacramentum Ordinis novos electos in corpus episcopale assumere.

22. Sicut, statuente Domino, sanctus Petrus et ceteri Apostoli unum Collegium apostolicum constituunt, pari ratione Romanus Pontifex, successor Petri, et Episcopi, successores Apostolorum, inter se coniunguntur. Iam perantiqua disciplina, qua Episcopi in universo orbe constituti ad invicem et cum Romano Episcopo communicabant in vinculo [26] unitatis, caritatis et pacis,[59] itemque concilia coadunata,[60] per quae et altiora quaeque in commune statuerentur,[61] sententia multorum consilio ponderata,[62] ordinis episcopalis indolem et rationem collegialem significant; quam manifeste comprobant Concilia Oecumenica decursu saeculorum celebrata. Eandem vero iam innuit ipse usus, antiquitus inductus, plures advocandi Episcopos qui in novo electo ad summi sacerdotii ministerium elevando partem haberent. Membrum Corporis episcopalis aliquis constituitur vi sacramentalis consecrationis et hierarchica communione cum Collegii Capite atque membris.

Collegium autem seu corpus Episcoporum auctoritatem non habet, nisi simul cum Pontifice Romano, successore Petri, ut capite eius intellegatur, huiusque integre manente potestate Primatus in omnes sive Pastores sive fideles. Romanus enim Pontifex habet in Ecclesiam, vi muneris sui, Vicarii scilicet Christi et totius Ecclesiae Pastoris, plenam, supremam et universalem potestatem, quam semper libere exercere valet. Ordo autem Episcoporum, qui collegio Apostolorum in magisterio et regimine pastorali succedit, immo in quo corpus apostolicum continuo perseverat, una cum Capite suo Romano Pontifice, et numquam sine hoc Capite, subiectum quoque supremae ac plenae potestatis in universam Ecclesiam exsistit,[63] quae quidem potestas nonnisi consentiente Romano Pontifice exerceri potest. Dominus unum Simonem ut petram et clavigerum Ecclesiae posuit (cf. Mt. 16, 18-19), eumque Pastorem totius sui gregis constituit (cf. Io. 21, 15 ss.); illud autem ligandi ac solvendi munus, quod Petro datum est (cf. Mt. 16, 19), collegio quoque Apostolorum, suo Capiti coniuncto, tributum esse constat (Cf. Mt. 18, 18; 28, 16-20).[64] Collegium hoc quatenus ex multis compositum, varietatem et universalitatem Populi Dei, quatenus vero sub uno capite collectum unitatem gregis Christi exprimit. In ipso, Episcopi, primatum et principatum Capitis sui fideliter servantes, propria potestate in bonum [27] fidelium suorum, immo totius Ecclesiae funguntur, Spiritu Sancto organicam structuram eiusque concordiam continenter roborante. Suprema in universam Ecclesiam potestas, qua istud Collegium pollet, sollemni modo in Concilio Oecumenico exercetur. Concilium Oecumenicum numquam datur, quod a Successore Petri non sit ut tale confirmatum vel saltem receptum; et Romani Pontificis praerogativa est haec Concilia convocare, iisdem praesidere et eadem confirmare.[65] Eadem potestas collegialis una cum Papa exerceri potest ab Episcopis in orbe terrarum degentibus, dummodo Caput Collegii eos ad actionem collegialem vocet, vel saltem Episcoporum dispersorum unitam actionem approbet vel libere recipiat, ita ut verus actus collegialis efficiatur.

23. Collegialis unio etiam in mutuis relationibus singulorum Episcoporum cum particularibus Ecclesiis Ecclesiaque universali apparet. Romanus Pontifex, ut successor Petri, est unitatis, tum Episcoporum tum fidelium multitudinis, perpetuum ac visibile principium et fundamentum.[66] Episcopi autem singuli visibile principium et fundamentum sunt unitatis in suis Ecclesiis particularibus,[67] ad imaginem Ecclesiae universalis formatis in quibus et ex quibus una et unica Ecclesia catholica exsistit.[68] Qua de causa singuli Episcopi suam Ecclesiam, omnes autem simul cum Papa totam Ecclesiam repraesentant in vinculo pacis, amoris et unitatis.

Singuli Episcopi, qui particularibus Ecclesiis praeficiuntur, regimen suum pastorale super portionem Populi Dei sibi commissam, non super alias Ecclesias neque super Ecclesiam universalem exercent. Sed qua membra Collegii episcopalis et legitimi Apostolorum successores singuli ea sollicitudine pro universa Ecclesia ex Christi institutione et praecepto tenentur,[69] quae, etiamsi per actum iurisdictionis non exerceatur, summopere tamen confert ad Ecclesiae universalis emolumentum. Debent enim omnes Episcopi promovere et tueri unitatem fidei et disciplinam cunctae Ecclesiae communem, fideles edocere ad amorem totius Corporis mystici Christi, praesertim membrorum pauperum, [28] dolentium et eorum qui persecutionem patiuntur propter iustitiam (cf. Mt. 5, 10), tandem promovere omnem actuositatem quae toti Ecclesiae communis est, praesertim ut fides incrementum capiat et lux plenae veritatis omnibus hominibus oriatur. Ceterum hoc sanctum est quod, bene regendo propriam Ecclesiam ut portionem Ecclesiae universalis, ipsi efficaciter conferunt ad bonum totius mystici Corporis, quod est etiam corpus Ecclesiarum.[70]

Cura Evangelium ubique terrarum annuntiandi ad corpus Pastorum pertinet, quibus omnibus in commune Christus mandatum dedit imponendo commune officium, ut iam Papa Coelestinus Patribus Ephesini Concilii commendavit.[71] Unde singuli Episcopi, quantum propria eorum perfunctio muneris sinit, in laborum societatem venire tenentur inter se et cum successore Petri, cui grande munus christiani nominis propagandi singulari modo demandatum est.[72] Quare missionibus tum messis operarios, tum etiam auxilia spiritualia et materialia, tam per se directe, quam suscitando fidelium ardentem cooperationem, suppeditare omnibus viribus debent. Episcopi denique, in universali caritatis societate, fraternum adiutorium aliis Ecclesiis,praesertim finitimis et egentioribus, secundum venerandum antiquitatis exemplum, libenter praebeant.

Divina autem Providentia factum est ut variae variis in locis ab Apostolis eorumque successoribus institutae Ecclesiae decursu temporum in plures coaluerint coetus, organice coniunctos, qui, salva fidei unitate et unica divina constitutione universalis Ecclesiae, gaudent propria disciplina, proprio liturgico usu, theologico spiritualique patrimonio. Inter quas aliquae, notatim antiquae Patriarchales Ecclesiae, veluti matrices fidei, alias pepererunt quasi filias, quibuscum arctiore vinculo caritatis in vita sacramentali atque in mutua iurium et officiorum reverentia ad nostra usque tempora connectuntur.[73] Quae Ecclesiarum [29] localium in unum conspirans varietas indivisae Ecclesiae catholicitatem luculentius demonstrat. Simili ratione Coetus Episcopales hodie multiplicem atque fecundam opem conferre possunt, ut collegialis affectus ad concretam applicationem perducatur.

24. Episcopi, utpote Apostolorum successores, a Domino, cui omnis potestas in coelo et in terra data est, missionem accipiunt docendi omnes gentes et praedicandi Evangelium omni creaturae, ut homines universi, per fidem, baptismum et adimpletionem mandatorum salutem consequantur (cf. Mt. 28, 18-20; Mc. 16, 15-16; Act. 26, 17 s.). Ad hanc missionem implendam, Christus Dominus Spiritum Sanctum promisit Apostolis et die Pentecostes e coelo misit, cuius virtute testes Eidem essent usque ad ultimum terrae, coram gentibus et populis et regibus (cf. Act. 1, 8; 2, 1 ss.; 9, 15). Munus autem illud quod Dominus pastoribus populi sui commisit, verum est servitium quod in sacris Litteris «diaconia» seu ministerium significanter nuncupatur (cf. Act. 1, 17 et 25; 21, 19; Rom. 11, 13; 1 Tim. 1, 12).

Episcoporum autem missio canonica fieri potest per legitimas consuetudines, a suprema et universali potestate Ecclesiae non revocatas, vel per leges ab eadem auctoritate latas aut agnitas, vel directe per ipsum Successorem Petri; quo renuente seu communionem Apostolicam denegante, Episcopi in officium assumi nequeunt.[74]

25. Inter praecipua Episcoporum munera eminet praedicatio Evangelii.[75] Episcopi enim sunt fidei praecones, qui novos discipulos ad Christum adducunt, et doctores authentici seu auctoritate Christi praediti, qui populo sibi commisso fidem credendam et moribus applicandam praedicant, et sub lumine Sancti Spiritus illustrant, ex thesauro Revelationis nova et vetera proferentes (cf. Mt. 13, 52), eam fructificare faciunt erroresque gregi suo impendentes vigilanter arcent (cf. 2 Tim. 4, 1-4). Episcopi in communione cum Romano Pontifice docentes ab omnibus tamquam divinae et catholicae veritatis testes venerandi sunt; fideles autem in sui Episcopi sententiam de fide et moribus nomine Christi prolatam concurrere, eique religioso animi obsequio adhaerere [30] debent. Hoc vero religiosum voluntatis et intellectus obsequium singulari ratione praestandum est Romani Pontificis authentico magisterio etiam cum non ex cathedra loquitur; ita nempe ut magisterium eius supremum reverenter agnoscatur, et sententiis ab eo prolatis sincere adhaereatur, iuxta mentem et voluntatem manifestatam ipsius, quae se prodit praecipue sive indole documentorum, sive ex frequenti propositione eiusdem doctrinae, sive ex dicendi ratione.

Licet singuli praesules infallibilitatis praerogativa non polleant, quando tamen, etiam per orbem dispersi, sed communionis nexum inter se et cum Successore Petri servantes, authentice res fidei et morum docentes in unam sententiam tamquam definitive tenendam conveniunt, doctrinam Christi infallibiliter enuntiant.[76] Quod adhuc manifestius habetur quando, in Concilio Oecumenico coadunati, pro universa Ecclesia fidei et morum doctores et iudices sunt, quorum definitionibus fidei obsequio est adhaerendum.[77]

Haec autem infallibilitas, qua Divinus Redemptor Ecclesiam suam in definienda doctrina de fide vel moribus instructam esse voluit, tantum patet quantum divinae Revelationis patet depositum, sancte custodiendum et fideliter exponendum. Qua quidem infallibilitate Romanus Pontifex, Collegii Episcoporum Caput, vi muneris sui gaudet, quando, ut supremus omnium christifidelium pastor et doctor, qui fratres suos in fide confirmat (cf. Lc. 22, 32), doctrinam de fide vel moribus definitivo actu proclamat.[78] Quare definitiones eius ex sese, et non ex consensu Ecclesiae, irreformabiles merito dicuntur, quippe quae sub assistentia Spiritus Sancti, ipsi in beato Petro promissa, prolatae sint, ideoque nulla indigeant aliorum approbatione, nec ullam ad aliud iudicium appellationem patiantur. Tunc enim Romanus Pontifex non ut persona privata sententiam profert, sed ut universalis Ecclesiae magister supremus, in quo charisma infallibilitatis ipsius Ecclesiae singulariter inest, doctrinam fidei catholicae exponit vel tuetur.[79] Infallibilitas Ecclesiae promissa in corpore Episcoporum quoque inest, quando supremum magisterium cum Petri Successore exercet. Istis autem [31] definitionibus assensus Ecclesiae numquam deesse potest propter actionem eiusdem Spiritus Sancti, qua universus Christi grex in unitate fidei servatur et proficit.[80]

Cum autem sive Romanus Pontifex sive Corpus Episcoporum cum eo sententiam definiunt, eam proferunt secundum ipsam Revelationem, cui omnes stare et conformari tenentur et quae scripta vel tradita per legitimam Episcoporum successionem et imprimis ipsius Romani Pontificis cura integre transmittitur, atque praelucente Spiritu veritatis in Ecclesia sancte servatur et fideliter exponitur.[81]

Ad quam rite indagandam et apte enuntiandam, Romanus Pontifex et Episcopi, pro officio suo et rei gravitate, per media apta, sedulo operam navant;[82] novam vero revelationem publicam tamquam ad divinum fidei depositum pertinentem non accipiunt.[83]

26. Episcopus, plenitudine sacramenti Ordinis insignitus, est «oeconomus gratiae supremi sacerdotii»,[84] praesertim in Eucharistia, quam ipse offert vel offerri curat,[85] et qua continuo vivit et crescit Ecclesia. Haec Christi Ecclesia vere adest in omnibus, legitimis fidelium congregationibus localibus, quae, pastoribus suis adhaerentes, et ipsae in Novo Testamento ecclesiae vocantur.[86] Hae sunt enim loco suo Populus novus a Deo vocatus, in Spiritu Sancto et in plenitudine multa (cf. 1 Thess. 1, 5). In eis praedicatione Evangelii Christi congregantur fideles et celebratur mysterium Coenae Domini, «ut per escam et sanguinem Domini corporis fraternitas cuncta copuletur».[87] In quavis altaris communitate, sub Episcopi sacro ministerio,[88] exhibetur symbolum illius caritatis et «unitatis Corporis mystici, sine qua non potest esse salus».[89] In his communitatibus, licet saepe exiguis et pauperibus, vel in dispersione degentibus, praesens est Christus, cuius virtute consociatur una, sancta, catholica et apostolica Ecclesia.[90] [32] Etenim «non aliud agit participatio corporis et sanguinis Christi, quam ut in id quod sumimus transeamus».[91]

Omnis autem legitima Eucharistiae celebratio dirigitur ab Episcopo, cui officium commissum est cultum christianae religionis Divinae Maiestati deferendi atque administrandi secundum praecepta Domini et Ecclesiae leges, eius particulari iudicio ulterius pro dioecesi determinatas.

Ita Episcopi, orando pro populo et laborando, de plenitudine sanctitatis Christi multiformiter et abundanter effundunt. Per ministerium verbi virtutem Dei credentibus in salutem communicant (cf. Rom. 1, 16), et per sacramenta, quorum regularem et fructuosam distributionem auctoritate sua ordinant,[92] fideles sanctificant. Ipsi regunt collationem baptismi, quo regalis sacerdotii Christi participatio conceditur. Ipsi sunt ministri originarii confirmationis, dispensatores sacrorum ordinum et moderatores disciplinae poenitentialis, atque populos suos, ut in liturgia et praesertim in sacro Missae sacrificio partes suas fide et reverentia impleant, sollicite exhortantur et instruunt. Eis denique quibus praesunt exemplo conversationis suae proficere debent, mores suos ab omni malo temperantes et quantum poterint, Domino adiuvante, ad bonum commutando, ut ad vitam, una cum grege sibi credito, perveniant sempiternam.[93]

27. Episcopi Ecclesias particulares sibi commissas ut vicarii et legati Christi regunt,[94] consiliis, suasionibus, exemplis, verum etiam auctoritate et sacra potestate, qua quidem nonnisi ad gregem suum in veritate et sanctitate aedificandum utuntur, memores quod qui maior est fiat sicut minor et qui praecessor est sicut ministrator (cf. Lc. 22, 26-27). Haec potestas qua, nomine Christi personaliter funguntur, est propria, ordinaria et immediata, licet a suprema Ecclesiae auctoritate exercitium eiusdem ultimatim regatur et certis limitibus, intuitu utilitatis Ecclesiae vel fidelium, circumscribi possit. Vi huius potestatis Episcopi sacrum ius et coram Domino officium habent in suos subditos leges [33] ferendi, iudicium faciendi, atque omnia, quae ad cultus apostolatusque ordinem pertinent, moderandi. Ipsis munus pastorale seu habitualis et cotidiana cura ovium suarum plene committitur, neque vicarii Romanorum Pontificum putandi sunt, quia potestatem gerunt sibi propriam verissimeque populorum quos regunt, Antistites dicuntur.[95] Eorum itaque potestas a suprema et universali potestate non eliditur, sed e contra asseritur, roboratur et vindicatur,[96] Spiritu Sancto constitutam a Christo Domino in sua Ecclesia regiminis formam indefectibiliter servante.

Episcopus, missus a Patrefamilias ad gubernandam familiam suam, ante oculos teneat exemplum Boni Pastoris, qui venit non ministrari sed ministrare (cf. Mt. 20, 28; Mc. 10, 45) et animam suam pro ovibus ponere (cf. Io. 10, 11). Assumptus ex hominibus et circumdatus infirmitate, condolere potest iis qui ignorant et errant (cf. Hebr. 5, 1-2). Subditos, quos ut veros filios suos fovet et ad alacriter secum cooperandum exhortatur, audire ne renuat. Pro animabus eorum rationem redditurus Deo (cf. Hebr. 13, 17) oratione, praedicatione omnibusque operibus caritatis curam habeat tum eorumdem, tum etiam illorum qui de uno grege nondum sunt, quos in Domino commendatos sibi habeat. Ipse, cum sicut Paulus Apostolus cunctis debitor sit, promptus sit omnibus evangelizare (cf. Rom. 1, 14-15), fidelesque suos ad operositatem apostolicam et missionalem exhortari. Fideles autem Episcopo adhaerere debent sicut Ecclesia Iesu Christo, et sicut Iesus Christus Patri, ut omnia per unitatem consentiant,[97] et abundent in gloriam Dei (cf. 2 Cor. 4, 15).

28. Christus, quem Pater sanctificavit et misit in mundum (cf. Io. 10, 36), consecrationis missionisque suae per Apostolos suos, eorum successores, videlicet Episcopos participes effecit,[98] qui munus ministerii sui, vario gradu, variis subiectis in Ecclesia legitime tradiderunt. Sic ministerium ecclesiasticum divinitus institutum diversis ordinibus exercetur ab illis [34] qui iam ab antiquo Episcopi, Presbyteri, Diaconi vocantur.[99]

Presbyteri, quamvis pontificatus apicem non habeant et in exercenda sua potestate ab Episcopis pendeant, cum eis tamen sacerdotali honore coniuncti sunt[100] et vi sacramenti Ordinis,[101] ad imaginem Christi, summi atque aeterni Sacerdotis (cf. Hebr. 5, 1-10; 7, 24; 9, 11-28), ad Evangelium praedicandum fidelesque pascendos et ad divinum cultum celebrandum consecrantur, ut veri sacerdotes Novi Testamenti.[102] Muneris unici Mediatoris Christi (cf. 1 Tim. 2, 5) participes in suo gradu ministerii, omnibus verbum divinum annuntiant. Suum vero munus sacrum maxime exercent in eucharistico cultu vel synaxi, qua in persona Christi agentes[103] Eiusque mysterium proclamantes, vota fidelium sacrificio Capitis ipsorum coniungunt, et unicum sacrificium Novi Testamenti, Christi scilicet Sese Patri immaculatam hostiam semel offerentis (cf. Hebr. 9, 11-28), in sacrificio Missae usque ad adventum Domini (cf. 1 Cor. 11, 26) repraesentant et applicant.[104] Pro fidelibus autem poenitentibus vel aegrotantibus ministerio reconciliationis et alleviationis summe funguntur, et necessitates ac preces fidelium ad Deum Patrem afferunt (cf. Hebr. 5, 1-3). Munus Christi Pastoris et Capitis pro sua parte auctoritatis exercentes,[105] familiam Dei, ut fraternitatem in unum animatam,[106] colligunt et per Christum in Spiritu ad Deum Patrem adducunt. In medio gregis Eum in spiritu et veritate adorant (cf. Io. 4, 24). In verbo demum et doctrina laborant (cf. 1 Tim. 5, 17), credentes quod in lege Domini meditantes legerint, docentes quod crediderint, imitantes quod docuerint.[107] [35]

Presbyteri, ordinis Episcopalis providi cooperatores[108] eiusque adiutorium et organum, ad Populo Dei inserviendum vocati, unum presbyterium[109] cum suo Episcopo constituunt, diversis quidem officiis mancipatum. In singulis localibus fidelium congregationibus Episcopum, quocum fidenti et magno animo consociantur, quodammodo praesentem reddunt eiusque munera et sollicitudinem pro parte suscipiunt et cura cotidiana exercent. Qui sub auctoritate Episcopi portionem gregis dominici sibi addictam sanctificant et regunt, Ecclesiam universalem in suo loco visibilem faciunt et in aedificando toto corpore Christi (cf. Eph. 4, 12) validam opem afferunt. Ad bonum autem filiorum Dei semper intenti operam suam ad opus pastorale totius dioeceseos, immo totius Ecclesiae conferre studeant. Propter hanc in sacerdotio et missione participationem Presbyteri Episcopum vere ut patrem suum agnoscant eique reverenter oboediant. Episcopus vero Sacerdotes cooperatores suos ut filios et amicos consideret, sicut Christus discipulos suos iam non servos, sed amicos vocat (cf. Io. 15, 15). Corpori igitur Episcoporum, ratione Ordinis et ministerii, omnes Sacerdotes, tum dioecesani tum religiosi coaptantur et bono totius Ecclesiae pro sua vocatione et gratia inserviunt.

Vi communis sacrae ordinationis et missionis Presbyteri omnes inter se intima fraternitate nectuntur, quae sponte ac libenter sese manifestet in mutuo auxilio, tam spirituali quam materiali, tam pastorali quam personali, in conventibus et communione vitae, laboris et caritatis.

Fidelium vero, quos spiritualiter baptismate et doctrina genuerunt (cf. 1 Cor. 4, 15; I Pt. 1, 23), curam tamquam patres in Christo agant. Forma facti gregis ex animo (cf. I Pt. 5, 3) suae communitati locali ita praesint et inserviant, ut ista digne vocari possit illo nomine, quo unus et totus Populus Dei insignitur, Ecclesiae scilicet Dei (cf. 1 Cor. 1, 2; 2 Cor. 1, 1; et passim). Memores sint se sua cotidiana conversatione et sollicitudine fidelibus et infidelibus, catholicis et non catholicis, faciem ministerii vere sacerdotalis et pastoralis exhibere, omnibusque testimonium veritatis et vitae reddere debere, et ut boni pastores illos quoque quaerere (cf. Lc. 15, 4-7), qui baptizati quidem in Ecclesia catholica a praxi sacramentorum, vel imo a fide defecerunt.

Quia genus humanum hodie magis magisque in unitatem civilem, [36] oeconomicam et socialem coalescit, eo magis oportet ut Sacerdotes, coniuncta cura et ope sub ductu Episcoporum et Summi Pontificis, omnem rationem dispersionis elidant, ut in unitatem familiae Dei totum genus humanum adducatur.

29. In gradu inferiori hierarchiae sistunt Diaconi, quibus «non ad sacerdotium, sed ad ministerium» manus imponuntur.[110] Gratia etenim sacramentali roborati, in diaconia liturgiae, verbi et caritatis Populo Dei, in communione cum Episcopo eiusque presbyterio, inserviunt. Diaconi est, prout ei a competenti auctoritate assignatum fuerit, solemniter baptismum administrare, Eucharistiam servare et distribuere, matrimonio Ecclesiae nomine adsistere et benedicere, Viaticum moribundis deferre, fidelibus sacram legere Scripturam, populum instruere et exhortari, fidelium cultui et orationi praesidere, sacramentalia ministrare, ritui funeris ac sepulturae praeesse. Caritatis et administrationis officiis dediti, meminerint Diaconi moniti Beati Polycarpi: «Misericordes, seduli, incedentes iuxta veritatem Domini, qui omnium minister factus est».[111]

Cum vero haec munera, ad vitam Ecclesiae summopere necessaria, in disciplina Ecclesiae latinae hodie vigenti in pluribus regionibus adimpleri difficulter possint, Diaconatus in futurum tamquam proprius ac permanens gradus hierarchiae restitui poterit. Ad competentes autem varii generis territoriales Episcoporum coetus, approbante ipso Summo Pontifice, spectat decernere, utrum et ubinam pro cura animarum huiusmodi diaconos institui opportunum sit. De consensu Romani Pontificis hic diaconatus viris maturioris aetatis etiam in matrimonio viventibus conferri poterit, necnon iuvenibus idoneis, pro quibus tamen lex coelibatus firma remanere debet. [37]